英语书面表达中常见的九种句法错误

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本文整理了同学们在写作过程中经常出现的语法错误,希望大家看到后要及时改正,并以此为鉴。因为写作的最基本要求不是文章中有多么华丽的辞藻和句子,而是句子的准确性。




词性误用


词性误用常表现为:介词错用为动词,形容词错用为副词,名词错用为动词等。

例:They earn some money so that they can independence.他们挣钱是为了自立。

解析:independence是名词,句中误用为动词。

改为:They earn some money so that they can be independent.




修饰语错位


英语与汉语不同,同一个修饰语放在句子中不同的位置,可能会引起句子含义的变化。这一点常被同学们所忽视,因而造成了不必要的误解。

例:I believe I can do it well and I will better know the world outside the campus.我相信我会做得很好,而且我将对校园外的世界有更好的了解。

解析:better位置不当,应置于句末。

改为:I believe I can do it well and I will know the world outside the campus better.




句子不完整


在口语中,交际双方可借助手势、语气等来理解对方的意思,不完整的句子也完全可以被理解。可是书面语就不同了,句子结构不完整会令意思表达不清,这常常发生在主句写完以后,学生又想加些补充说明的情况下。

例:There are many ways to know the society. For example, by TV, radio,newspaper and so on.了解社会的途径有很多,比如,可以通过电视、广播、报纸,等等。

解析:本段后半部分“For example,by TV,radio,newspaper and so on.”不是一个完整的句子,仅为一些不连贯的词语,不能独立成句。

改为:There are many ways to know society,for example,by TV,radio,and newspaper.




主谓不一致


英语的谓语动词在人称和数上必须与主语保持一致。由于受汉语的影响,许多同学在写作时经常忽略句子的主谓一致关系,从而造成错误。

例:Once one have time,he can do what he want to do.人一旦有了时间,他就能想干什么就干什么。

解析:one是单数第三人称,因而本句的have应改为has;同理,want应改为wants,本句是典型的主谓不一致。

改为:Once one has time, he can do what he wants to do.




指代不清


指代不清主要指代词与被指代的人或物关系不清,或者先后所用的代词不一致。

例1:Mary was friendly to my sister because she wanted her to be her bridesmaid.玛丽和我姐姐很要好,因为她要她做她的伴娘。

解析:读完上面这一句话,读者无法明确地判断两位姑娘中谁将结婚,谁将当伴娘。如果我们把容易引起误解的代词加以明确,意思就一目了然了。

改为:Mary was friendly to my sister because she wanted my sister to be her bridesmaid.

例2:And we can also know the society by serving it yourself.我们还可以通过亲身参与、体验的方式了解社会。

解析:句中人称代词we和反身代词yourself指代不一致。

改为:And we can also know the society by serving it ourselves.




累赘


同学们在写书面表达时应尽量做到简洁:写句子没有一个多余的词,写段落没有一个多余的句子。

例1:In spite of the fact that he is lazy,I like him.尽管他很懒惰,我还是喜欢他。

解析:本句的“the fact that he is lazy”系同位语从句,我们可按照“简洁”的原则加以简化。

改为:In spite of his laziness,I like him.

例2:For the people who are diligent and kind, money is just the thing to be used to buy the thing they need.对于勤奋善良的人来说,钱只是用来购买所需东西的工具。

解析:整个句子可以大大简化,累赘重复过多。

改为:Diligent,caring people use money only to buy what they need.



句子不连贯


句子不连贯是指一个句子内部前言不搭后语,或是结构上不畅通。句子不连贯也是英语书面表达中比较常见的问题。

例:The fresh water,it is the most important things of the earth.淡水是地球上最重要的东西。

解析:The fresh water与逗号后的it不连贯,it与things在语法上不一致。

改为:Fresh water is the most important thing in the world.




句子结构混乱


句子结构混乱主要是受汉语思维方式影响而导致的。同学们在日常学习中应多加练习,培养语感。

例1:There are many students are playing basketball on the playground.操场上有许多学生在打篮球。

解析:上面的句子中出现了两个谓语动词,不符合英语的语法习惯。

改为:Many students are playing basketball on the playground.

例2:The girl is standing over there is from a big city.站在那边的女孩来自一个大城市。

解析:一个简单句中不能有两个谓语系动词,结构混乱。

改为:The girl standing over there is from a big city.




句型单调,句子与句子之间缺乏过渡


一篇文章如果简单句过多,句型单调,即使语法错误较少,思路较清晰,看后也会使人感到乏味。同学们应学会单句、复句交替使用,经常变换句型,尝试使用一些较复杂的语法结构及句型,适当运用过渡词,使文章更加连贯。

例:They sleep fewer than eight hours every day. It has great influence on their health.

解析:这段话中使用的全部是简单句,句型比较单调,可以改为定语从句或加入插入语。

改为:Actually, they sleep fewer than eight hours every day, which will,no doubt, have great influence on their health


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